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Disaster Management – Empirical Study

Natural disaster - natural phenomenon of an extraordinary nature, which leads to disruption of the normal activity of the population, the loss of life and destruction of property. Disasters can occur both independently and in interconnection: one of them may entail more. Some of them are often caused by human activities (e.g. forest and peat fires, industrial explosions in the mountainous area, the construction of dams, the development of quarries, which often leads to landslides, avalanches, landslides glaciers and so on). Regardless of the source of origin, natural disasters are characterized by significant scales and different duration - from a few seconds and minutes (earthquakes, avalanches, limnological catastrophe) to several hours (mudflows), days (landslides) and months (floods). Because of the population growth, the spread of scientific and technological achievements and the complexity of societal institutions, people become increasingly vulnerable to extreme natural phenomena, the damage from which is associated not only with their distribution, but also with the uncertainty of their occurrence. The losses, incurred by the society from avalanches, earthquakes, tropical cyclones and many other natural disasters, are increasing.

For many centuries humanity has developed quite a coherent system of protection against natural disasters, the implementation of which in different parts of the world could significantly reduce the number of casualties and the amount of material damage. However, until today, we, unfortunately, can only talk about specific examples of successful opposition to disasters. Nevertheless, it is appropriate to list the basic principles of protection from natural disasters and compensation for their consequences. A clear and timely forecasting of time, place and intensity of natural disasters is necessary. This makes it possible to promptly inform the population about the expected impact of the disaster. Properly understood warning allows people prepare for a dangerous phenomenon by any temporary evacuation or construction of protective engineering structures or strengthening their own homes, premises for cattle, etc. It must be taken into account the past experience, and its hard lessons should be brought to the attention of the population with an explanation that such a disaster could happen again. In some countries, the state buys land in areas of possible natural disasters and organizes subsidized moving from hazardous areas. Important role in preventing damage from natural disasters belongs to engineering and geographical regionalization of areas of possible natural disaster, as well as the development of building codes and regulations that strictly govern the type and character of the building.

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